Neurons are also called as nerve cells or nerve fibers and they are electrically excitable cells found in the nervous system and do the function of processing and transmitting information. Neurons communicate through chemical and electrical synapses and this transmission is also called as synaptic transmission.
In human body, the neurons communicate by sending electronic signals throughout the body. It actually propagates involuntary reactions and the exact process is an electrochemical one. Their signals are so quick that it only takes around three quarters of a second.
There are numerous incidents in our life which help us understand the functioning and the speed of their communication. For example, in a situation where a person sees a thing falling from his friend’s hand, the speed of their communication can be seen. The image is transmitted to the brain and from there signal is passed to the hand. All this only takes a few micro seconds!
As soon as a signal is sent, the neurotransmitter gets activated. This is a chemical compound which is transferred from neuron to neuron when information is transmitted. We can find Synapse xt them in the vesicles in the axon of the neuron. An electronic impulse originates from the main body of the neuron, it travels along down into the axon and does the function of activating the neuron.
As soon as the neurotransmitter is activated it moves down to the synapse. Then their molecules get attached to the receptors on the dendrite. If and when enough receptors are activated, the dendrite gets activated, and an electric impulse is passed to the body of the neuron.
This process is then again repeated. The signal passes through the body, activates the neurotransmitter and is transmitted through the synapse. This signal then again attaches to the receptors on the dendrites and the process begins once again. A single neuron can get itself attached to multiple different neurons. So on the event of sending one signal; it passes through a thousand neurons at the same time. This can be explained as the reason why information is passed so quickly and the responses so quick.